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water quality of modern water parks.

by:KK INFLATABLE      2020-06-14
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Water Park is an element of the rapid development of the United States. S.
These parks offer creative theme designs for water activities.
As the design that attracts becomes more creative, the likelihood of user injury or infection increases exponentially (
See 15 pages of photos, top).
Public health responsibility to regulate the operation and design of water park facilities, involving injury prevention and reduction and control of the spread of water diseases.
Park designers face the challenge of reducing wear and impact damage by buffering pool pools and edges with a variety of padded materials.
Usually, the design of the park\'s perimeter is decorated with themes to enhance the attraction of the park.
However, these same features that protect against injury may in fact increase the risk of water-borne diseases by hiding and spreading bacteria.
For example, foam liners in high traffic areas may provide gap space for opportunity bacteria to escape from the pool water disinfectant and may infect swimmers.
Health department of Wisconsin completed
Conduct a one-year study in indoor and five outdoor water parks throughout the state.
The study was conducted to investigate the sanitary condition of these parks in order to update existing regulations to cover the new design of modern water parks.
This approach is to provide better data for regulators
Make an informed judgment on the health and safety of pool customers and their children.
Methods the water, materials and surfaces were fully monitored and the total coliform bacteria were quantitatively detected. coli, E.
E. coli, S. coli, s.
All samples were analyzed at the Wisconsin National Health Laboratory and collected during unannounced visits.
All sites were sampled at least three times.
Three types of samples have been established: water (
Sample pool water), submerged (
Swab and material samples below the water surface of the swimming pool), and damp (
Swab, material or water sample above the water surface of the swimming pool).
All water samples were tested on site with dpd fas titration colorimetrictest kit, and free chlorine residues, combined chlorine and pH values were tested.
The water samples of the swimming pool are further subdivided into three common types in modern water parks: Activity pools, water pools and wading pools.
The involved pool is further separated into the involved Pool, whether there is a permanent dumping or notin-
Place the padded surface.
The depth of the activity pool is more than 2 feet, mainly designed for gaming activities using built features and devices.
The slide pool is a swimming pool at the end of the slide, which carries more than 100 gallons of water down.
Wading pools designed for toddlers and toddlers are not more than 2 feet deep and may have padding, permanent dumpingin-placeimpact-
Decay surface partially or completely submerged in water (
See above, bottom). [
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Results the compliance of swimming pool water was tested according to the national water quality regulations; 94.
5% of the pool water samples meet the bacterial standards, and 88% comply with the free chlorine residue in the swimming pool as specified in the Wisconsin administrative regulations (
1 out of millions [ppm]
For activities and swimming pools, for wading swimming pools 2 ppm)(
Chinese Administrative Regulations 2002).
In 12% of the samples, the pool and pond involved were lower than the required free chlorine concentration, while the sample of the inactive pool lacked chlorine.
Most water parks have automation technology and trained staff, which can explain their high compliance compared to other public studies focused on standard swimming pools.
Additional design and operational features of the water park
Trained operators oversee multiple unique pool pools.
In this survey, all employees were certified for pool operations from the national certification organization.
Subjects and padded materials used to cushion the effects of swimming pool slides or other activities were tested, including materials submerged in chlorine water and materials considered damp.
With no exception, flooding contaminants and materials in the water of the chlorine pool reduces the frequency of target organisms (Figure 1).
Bacteria separated from the sea floore. g.
Landing pad below ground)
It is possible to survive because the porous interior or surface film provides protection for the chloride water.
Sample farthest from pool water--dampsamples--
Contains the most bacteria.
Bacteria also often find wet surfaces on people\'s skin, hair and nasal passages, and naturally exist in the environment.
More than 30% of the population is the carrier of the bacteria we found in the material (
Mainous, Hueston, compensation, and Diaz, 2006). [
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Also tested the game function and found that the game function designed for young children and babies contains the most bacteria (see photoabove).
Due to the unfamiliar users of these game functions, stool indicators are often found (E. coli, 13%;
Total coliform, 53%;
Skin indicators such as Staphylococcus were found in up to 80% of the samples. E.
E. coli and E. coli were found in [concentrations up to 1,050 CFUs/100 cm² and 24,192 CFUs/100]cm. sup. 2]Respectively (Figure 2). E.
E. coli o15:h7, which caused the outbreak in Atlanta water park, is a bacteria that has not been detected in the swimming pool water or anywhere in the park.
Submerged landing pad compression studies, although water samples from the pool containing the landing pad material showed very few target organisms, were further evaluated, to determine whether landing at the weight of abather can discharge target organisms on padmaterial (
See photos on page 17, top).
To simulate this effect, when pool water is collected at the same time, the sterile 25 kg container is pushed onto the submerged padded material.
The pool water before Matcompression had relatively no target bacteria, and only the same bacteria were found (
Level at 25. 7 billion cfu/100 ml).
However, the water collected during the compression of the mat contains the same nutrients (926 billion cfu/100 ml)as well as S. aureus and S. epidermidis (
And 22. 8 billion/10 billion of 100 ml cfu/100 ml cfu, respectively).
This suggests that using a landing pad at the bottom of a pool or slide may release more bacteria to the pool recycling system.
Mats can protect these organisms from residual chlorine, but do not know how long they will survive after release. [
Figure 1 slightly]
Personal interviews with park owners with permanent rubber surface attenuation materials show that areas with buffer surfaces do less damage than those exposed by the standard pool basin.
Both designers and owners requested additional use of these products in other environments, which prompted the direct injection of permanent rubber surface decay materials into the pool basin for evaluation.
During our study, it was found that the material was degraded in 3 ppm of the chlorine residue, and the material fragment test of all target bacteria was positive.
Water in shallow pools using permanent surface treatment materials is 10 times more likely to contain P
It is easier to contain S than that of E. coli without surface materials. aureus (Figure 3).
Public areas of the water park include changing rooms or recliners that are not necessarily related to bathing.
Because swimmers often come into contact with these areas when entering and leaving the swimming pool, some surface and stagnant water samples were taken for the target creature.
Although there are no target organisms in the pool water samples associated with these areas (data not shown)
, Bacteria were detected on the dressing room floor, on the deck area itself, and on the rubber material used on the stair handrails leading to the water attractions. Although E.
E. coli was isolated from the locker room floor samples and all other target organisms were detected at 100% frequency.
In addition, intestinal bacteria, different cultures and bacteria were found. aureus, and S.
In the 30% to 100% trial, the number of epithelial cells exceeded the maximum detection limit. E.
E. coli is separated from the water collected by the handrails, the deck entrance of the shallow pool and the three deck areas that do not tilt the drainage.
A sample of the deck of the Awading pool contains 18,420 CFUs/100 ml.
High-water on deck
Transport areas are particularly prone to bacterial spread, as free chlorine drops decrease as bacteria drain
Skin and clothes (data not shown).
In the absence of thorough hygiene procedures, these puddles may support the viability of a few days (
See 17-page photos of the Center). [
Figure 2:[
Figure 3 slightly]
The materials and game features that summarize the tests rarely provide enough learning procedures for the pool operator to determine by observing what is considered \"dirty.
\"If pad materials and playback functions are used, these materials and functions should be taken into account in the inspection criteria, because some provide a protective environment in which opportunity pathogens such as aspseudo
These additional features in the pool area should have special care and time.
Manufacturers should provide cleaning and disinfection recommendation with their products.
Proper cleaning procedures must be provided and followed to prevent microorganisms from thriving in an environment lacking stable chlorine flow (
See photo below right).
In general, the park runs normally.
Readers should be careful not to overemphasize the existence of these creatures.
A study by Ojima and co-authors (2002)
The bathroom has some of the same microbes in the kitchen and is similar.
Conclusion The number of target organisms in pool water samples is the least, followed by submerged samples of features and pads.
The highest positive sample rate is the characteristic and pad of the wet category.
Game features designed for babies and toddlers are classified as wet and are most likely a tool for intestinal bacterial transfer.
A series of target organisms separated from wet features indicate that in the absence of contact with the water in the chlorine pool, these features should be routinely disinfected using a combination of chemical and physical methods, preferably recommended by the manufacturer. [
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Creatures separated from underwater may survive because of the protection of the biofilm or the barrier to entering the chlorine water. Free-
However, floating organisms derived from biofilm or swimmers are clearly controlled by a chlorine reaction, and the low incidence of water samples in positive pools reflects this.
The benefits of using pad materials to prevent impact injuries are appreciated and there is no epidemiology evidence that pad materials are related to disease transmission.
Nevertheless, compared to pools that do not have this material, the frequency of bacteria detected in pools that use permanent surface materials has increased.
The results also suggest that the use of landing pads at the bottom of the pool or on the waterslide could release more bacteria into the pool recycling system.
If padded materials and playback functions are used, they should be considered in the inspection criteria.
Public areas, including decks, should also be evaluated during inspection and routine maintenance.
To reduce the spread of fecal bacteria, Wisconsin passed a legislation in 2005 that required diapers
Replace stationery in all new swimming pools and water parks.
This includes a men\'s and women\'s restroom, providing an alternative option for babies and toddlers in the appropriate location.
This study provides new data for science.
According to the health department of Wisconsin re-evaluation of the existing swimming pool regulations.
The amendment was adopted on February 2008 and promulgated.
A complete research paper is published in the Journal of Water and Health (
Published by Davis, Stanford and Dagnan).
Confirmation: The work was supported by the Department of Health and Family Services, the Environmental Health Bureau, and worked with the Wisconsin National Health Laboratory, ArchieDegnan and Jon stanridge.
Special thanks to the owners and operators of Wisconsin Water Park and P Daryl MatzkeE.
Editor\'s note: Tracynda Davis currently serves as chairman of the NEHA general environmental health technology division and sneha, steering committee of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC\'s)
Aquatic Health Code (MAHC).
She is also vice chairman of the MAHC water quality technical committee.
Americans seem to visit our national water parks more and more, however, health programs that are properly operated may not have been widely developed and implemented yet.
The following studies remind us that awareness and good maintenance practices are critical to public health in aquatic environments.
This article highlights the research Lady
Development and implementation of Davis (
Working with Wisconsin National Health Laboratory)
As the entertainment water project manager of Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services.
This paper aims to raise the awareness of environmental health experts when inspecting water parks.
In addition, this information will help regulators, owners and operators to develop guidelines for improving public health and safety in water parks.
The preliminary study of the indoor water park was initially presented by Davis on 2003 at AEC & Exhibition at Renault NEHA, and on 2004 at Reno her study of the outdoor water park.
Davis holds M. P. H.
From the University of South Florida, Environmental Health Center.
In 2004, she was appointed head of environmental sanitation emergency by CDC and NEHA.
She is a researcher in the founding class of the environmental public health leadership institute organized by the CDC.
She was nominated by the American Public Health Association for \"creating a comprehensive water attraction program in Wisconsin \".
Davis is currently director of environmental health programs at the National Swimming Pool Foundation. R].
Her main goal is to coordinate and expand environmental sanitation projects to raise the educational standards for operators and inspectors at the national level.
Water park inspection checklist []
Check the area not tilted to drain (
Important pre-inspection)
* Locker room/washroom * walkway * fountain pool * deck []
If water accumulation is found in the daily inspection, the area should be cleaned with chlorine water every day. []
The diaper changing station should be clean and in good condition. []
It should be easy for the customer to see the logo of the diaper changing station and the bathroom. []
The requirement to post the logo prohibits changing diapers in the pool deckor, incorporating this into the regulations. []
It is recommended that the operator check the condition and playback function of the padded material on a daily basis, record the condition in the log, and follow the manufacturer\'s cleaning protocol. []
Ask the operator about the cleaning protocol for the padded material used and the play function. []
Take time out during the inspection to educate the pool operator on the importance of complying with the cleaning agreement specified for the products used. []
Encourage operators to educate customers on how diseases spread (e. g.
, Provide an overview to customers who deal with fecal accidents or vomiting, and ask parents to notify employees who have an accident). []
Recommend to the public the importance of bathing with soap before using the pool, avoid diarrhea and swim, and take other precautions to reduce the risk of illness for further education.
Davis, T. J. , & Degnan, A. (in press).
Bacterial analysis of indoor and outdoor water parks in Wisconsin.
Journal of Water and Health. doi: 10. 2166/ wh. 2009.
028 main three,. , Hueston, W. , Everett, C. , & Diaz, V. (2006).
Nose carrying of S. aureus and amoxicillinresistant S.
S. aureus, 2001-2002.
Yearbook of family medicine, 4,132-137. Ojima, M. , Toshima, Y. , Koya, E. , Ara, K. , Kawai, S. , & Ueda,N. (2002).
Bacterial contamination of Japanese families and related health issues.
International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 12,41-52.
Wisconsin administrative regulations
Chapter 172 HFS. (2002).
Safety, maintenance and operation of public swimming pools. Register No. 557.
Third use-
Party review to reduce health and environmental hazards of JanitorialIndustry kazuiro Okumura Tracynda Davis, M. Surface Active Agents and cleaning productsP. H.
Correspondent: Tracynda Davis, director of environmental health program, National Swimming Pool FoundationR]
4775 Granby circle, Colorado Springs, CO 80919. E-
Email: tracynda @ yahoo
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